Perennial is Latin for per for “through” and annus for “year”. It is a plan in which lives for two or more years without needing to be replaced as the annual plants. Some of the plants that are perennials are shrubs and trees.
Perennials that are the small flowering plants grow blooms during the spring and summer months but die back during the winter months then return to their splendor the following spring. They are able to come back to life due to their rootstock and do not require seeds.
The life cycle of the plants varies from a few years to a long time depending on the species of the plant. They vary in height from a short to very tall such as the Redwoods of California. This group includes a wide assortment such as ferns, orchids, and grasses as well as evergreen bushes. The plants the only flower or produce fruit once are called monocarpic or semelparous. Most perennials are polycarpic, which flower for many years.
Perennials are known for adapting to their environments allowing them to thrive in various locations. The structure of the perennials includes bulbs, woody crowns, rhizomes, and tubers. They may have specialized stems or crowns that allow them to survive during the dormant periods of the dry or cold seasons of the year. After a few years, the plants may produce large seeds to recreate their species.
In warmer weather, the perennial will continuously growth and develop as they are not faced with the cooler temperatures or dryness. The locations of seasonal climate present a limited growth and time for development. The plants in the areas with seasonal changes are referred to as deciduous perennials since they have to die in the winter months and return in the spring.
Perennials are resilient due to their root system and the protection of the soil for the roots. The plants are more tolerant of the changes in weather. Herbaceous are perennials the tolerate extreme cold temperatures.
Planting perennials requires knowing the type of weather for the area and their plants life requirements. Most of the plants are marked with special zones to designate the proper area for planting to obtain higher quality of life for the plants. Yet some plants will thrive outside the designated zones, as they are resilient and adapt to various conditions or locations.
Due to the ease of growing the perennials, they are the favorites of many gardeners. The plants often require maintenance such as pruning or shaping of the plants such as trees and shrubs yet other can grow for many years without any maintenance or assistance for development.