With no bulb or battery, glow sticks manage to give off a strong light. So, just how exactly do glow sticks work? Glow stick lighting is the outcome of a chemical reaction. Most glow sticks hold a peroxide solution and a solution containing phenyl oxalate ester and a luminescent dye. When the two substances are combined, the hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the phenyl oxalate ester, ensuing in a chemical called phenol and an unstable acid ester. The unstable compound decomposes, ensuing in additional phenol and a cyclic peroxy compound. The cyclic peroxy substance then decomposes to carbon dioxide; this decomposition procedure releases energy to the dye, and the electrons in the dye atoms jump to a greater level, then fall back down, releasing energy in the type of lighting.
The actual light stick is just a type of real estate the two solutions. In the stick, the two solutions are kept in separate chambers. The phenyl oxalate ester and dye solution fills most of the glow stick, while the hydrogen peroxide solution is kept in a smaller glass vial within the middle of the stick. This is why glow sticks must be bent to initialize – bending the plastic material stick smashes the glass vial open, allowing the two solutions to mix.
The glow stick can stay lighted for hours, if enough compounds are utilized. However, more commercial glow sticks are likely to last up to 30 minutes. Also, home heating the glow stick will result in it to glow better, however it will also dim more rapidly. Similarly, chilling the stick will slow down the procedure and cause a dimmer light to last much longer. Freezing a glow stick can result in the lighting to final for a number of days, although it will eventually fade out.
Although some web sites provide information on how to make a glow stick, this really is discouraged unless an individual has a background in science and substantial training in chemical substances. While fairly safe, mixing the compounds wrongly can lead to inadvertent outcomes, and the coloring can damage clothes and other fabrics.